Breast Disorders
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Breast Disorders

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Breast Disorders refer to a series of conditions that may affect breast health. When women notice unusual conditions in their breasts, they often assume they have breast cancer. In reality, most breast diseases are benign, and it is best to seek medical follow-up to determine whether the condition is benign or malignant.

Nipple Stones

Nipple stones are small, hard particles that typically appear in the sweat glands or sebaceous glands of the nipple or areola, often due to breast inflammation or the accumulation of milk

It generally occur in women aged 30 to 50 who are taking hormonal medications.

Symptoms may include forming small particles, mild pain or discomfort, and sometimes accompanying inflammation or infection. Diagnosis is usually made through clinical examination. Most nipple stones do not require specific treatment and may naturally disappear. If infection occurs or discomfort persists, medical intervention may be necessary, including local antibiotics or minor surgery under medical supervision.

⚠ Nipple stones is not exclusive to women; it can also occur in men.

Breast Fibroadenoma

Breast Fibroadenoma is a rare benign breast tumour that mainly occurs in middle-aged women, with an average age ranging from about 40 to 50 years.

Symptoms may include the presence of painless lumps in the breast, the size of which may change over time.

Diagnosis typically relies on imaging tests such as breast ultrasound or mammography, and it may require a biopsy to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options depend on the size and growth rate of the tumour and often involve surgical removal. Because fibroadenomas can occasionally become malignant, close monitoring and regular check-ups are essential.

Mastitis

Mastitis is a condition characterized by cellulitis involving the tissues around the breast, often seen as a breast infection during breastfeeding, resulting from bacterial infection due to breast duct blockage. Mastitis is very rare in non-breastfeeding women.

Most cases are triggered by external trauma to the nipple skin, and symptoms are usually mild. The primary symptoms include breast swelling, pain, redness, and fever. The breast may be tender to the touch, and there may be areas of inflammation or infection.

Mastitis can be categorized as acute or chronic, with acute mastitis being more common.

Treatment for uncomplicated breast tissue inflammation primarily involves oral antibiotics, fever reducers, pain relievers, and anti-inflammatory drugs. It is advisable to wear a comfortable bra to avoid local congestion and reduce breast pain. Treatment methods include oral antibiotics, frequent emptying of the breast, using warm compresses to alleviate pain, and maintaining proper breastfeeding positions. If symptoms persist or worsen, prompt medical attention is necessary.

In more severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous antibiotic therapy may be required. If symptoms do not improve after 48 hours of treatment, the possibility of abscess formation should be considered, and surgical drainage may be necessary.

Fibrocystic Changes

Breast hyperplasia refers to the non-malignant growth of breast tissue, mostly occurring in the milk ducts beneath the areola. It is caused by epithelial hyperplasia within the ducts, also known as "intraductal papilloma." It is the most common breast condition in women, accounting for the highest incidence among breast disorders.

Common symptoms include breast lumps, pain, or sensitivity, especially more noticeable before menstruation.

Diagnosis methods may include clinical examination, breast ultrasound, or lactation radiography. Treatment is typically symptom-focused, including pain management and lifestyle adjustments. Hormone therapy may sometimes be used.

In recent years, the incidence of breast hyperplasia has been on the rise, and it is becoming more common at younger ages.

Mammary Ductal Ectasia

Mammary Ductal Ectasia, also known as "Duct Ectasia," is a common breast condition that primarily affects women, often around the age of 40. It typically occurs in both breasts and can involve multiple milk ducts.

The main characteristic of ductal ectasia is the dilation and deformation of the milk ducts. Common symptoms include breast pain and sometimes the discharge of fluid from the nipples.

Diagnosis relies on clinical examination and imaging tests such as breast ultrasound or lactation radiography.

Treatment typically depends on the severity of symptoms and may include medication or surgery. In mild cases, regular monitoring may be sufficient.

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Fibrocystic Breast Disease is a common benign breast condition that is often observed in women around the age of 30.

Symptoms may include the presence of painless round or oval lumps in the breast or the formation of fluid-filled cysts in the breast, which can sometimes worsen around the time of menstruation.

Diagnosis typically relies on clinical examinations and imaging studies such as breast ultrasound or mammography.

Most fibrocystic breast cysts do not require treatment, but if symptoms are present, options like cyst aspiration or surgical removal may be considered. It is recommended to perform regular breast self-examinations and seek medical advice if there are concerns.

Breast Fibroadenoma

Breast Fibroadenoma is a common benign tumour of the breast and is more frequently found in young women aged 20 to 25. Breast Fibroadenomas are initially small but proliferate. When they reach a size of about 3cm, their growth rate tends to slow down or stop. They typically have a round or oval shape, well-defined borders, and are relatively firm, with fewer instances of being flat.

Symptoms include the presence of a solid, movable lump within the breast. The tumour size can vary from the size of a pea to that of an orange, and there may be more than one. Fibroadenomas are characterized by their round, smooth, and firm texture; some may have small nodules. In most cases, patients do not experience tenderness.

Since the cells of Breast Fibroadenoma are benign, they do not transform into malignant tumours.

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Adenomyosis is a condition that affects the uterus in women. It occurs when the tissue from the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) breaks through the uterine wall and develops into new endometrial tissue within the uterine muscle layer. This growth can cause the uterine tissue to enlarge and thicken, leading to various symptoms.

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Cervical cancer, also known as cancer that occurs in the cervix, is statistically caused by HPV (Human Papillomavirus) infection in over 90% of cases, leading to abnormal cell growth and eventual development of cancer. Cervical cancer is one of the common cancers among women, and women of all age groups are at risk of developing cervical cancer. In Hong Kong, cervical cancer ranks the 7th most common cancer among women and the 9th leading cause of fatal cancer among women. In 2020, there were a total of 556 new cases recorded, with 159 fatalities.

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